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Magnus Huber. This term paper was written for one of my seminars in SS It is excellent both in form and contents and received term paper sample mark 1. The term paper is made available here as an example of a very good paper by consent of its author, whose intellectual property it remains. Contents 1 Introduction. List of figures: Figure 1: Hie, aztec homework help and term paper sample in absolute numbers.

List of tables: Table 1: The sub-periods of the HC. Oxford Dfg druckkosten zuschuss dissertation Dictionary, online edition see list of references for complete bibliographical reference. As we know, these forms have died out completely and are no longer part of present-day Standard English. The third person plural pronouns that are used today term paper sample, them and their actually go back to Old Norse, the Term paper sample Germanic language that is the common ancestor of Danish, Norwegian and Swedish. The presence of these forms as well as many term paper sample ON borrowings in the English language is the result of the so-called Viking Age, which from Englands point of view began with a series of plunders and raids of small villages along the east coast by Danish and Norwegian Vikings in the late 8th century A.

Jucker It is probably around this narrative essay help and in this place that the th- forms of the third person plural pronouns were dear john book essays from ON into Old English. The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the different forms of the third person plural pronouns in English throughout the Middle Ages. I term paper sample tried to find out when the shift from the indigenous h- forms to the borrowed th very short essay on discipline - forms term paper sample, using a corpus linguistic approach: Parts of the Helsinki Corpus HC expository essay about gross national happiness analyzed term paper sample the help of hire someone to write an essay concordance program WordSmith.

According to the nature of this research, I have decided to take into account only those parts of the HC that contained texts written before Term paper sample. Before we turn towards the investigation proper chapter 3 of this paperit will be necessary to have a look at the basic relationship between OE and ON and the nature of the esl content ghostwriters for hire uk borrowing that we are dealing with chapters 2.

See Dna and protein essay poster and Cable 92 ff. Apart from the few dissertation coutume et constitution facts mentioned above, term paper sample is in fact term paper sample little from which we could gather what cultural life in the Term paper sample was really like.

The only traces of essays on truth happened on the linguistic level are changes in term paper sample language itself, and given the term paper sample small number of surviving OE texts, it is generally difficult to arrive at any satisfying conclusions.

Graddol et al. This fact has given room to a lot of controversy among experts. Freeborn 46for example, thinks it likely that the two languages were similar enough in vocabulary for Dissertation acknowledgement supervisor speakers to understand common ON words, and vice versa, apa style dissertation chapters that the English and Norsemen could communicate.

Bjrkman 4f. In his introduction to the history of English, Jucker essays to buy online even briefly refers to OE and ON as dialects implying that the Anglo-Saxons and the Vikings spoke basically the same language. On the other hand, Kastovsky f. See Baugh dissertation printing gcu Cable 99 ff. Geipel 14 refers to these as structure the easiest way to write an essay, whereas Baugh and Term paper sample as well as Kastovsky term paper sample the label form words.

However we might call these items, it is a well-known fact that they are usually not borrowed term paper sample other languages cf. Baugh and Cable This is obviously because their function is highly grammatical, which means that they belong to the basic grammatical construct of a language. Form words from one language are not often borrowed into ap literature composition essay rubric because term paper sample semantic correspondents either questions in thesis defense with answers exist term paper sample the other language, 3 or if they do not, the other language would have to change its grammatical character in order to borrow them.

However little we might know online thesis review the relationship between the AngloSaxons and the Vikings, the fact that grammatical items from ON were borrowed into OE suggests loi du 3 juin 1958 dissertation the two peoples must have had close contact for a long time, as Term paper sample 14 conjectures: The assimilation by one language of such intimate items as 'structure words' i. Moreover, this borrowing of words with grammatical functions also term paper sample the hypothesis mentioned above, namely that the two languages were mutually intelligible term paper sample least term paper sample some extent.

Smith concludes that the loadwords from ON must have been treated sociolinguistically as equivalent to items of English lexis, and thus available for use within the core vocabulary of the language, and this is indeed only possible if there is a certain degree of term paper sample. Now, if this kind of borrowing so rarely takes place, what actually made it term paper sample in this case? One possible reason for the replacement of hie by they could be the fact dissertation binders bournemouth hie is fairly similar in form to the OE third person singular pronouns usually spelled he he and term paper sample or hio sheand this similarity extends to the other cases as well e.

Thus the Scandinavian th- forms were possibly [] felt to be less subject to confusion with forms of the singular, as Baugh and Cable put it. This theory of the 3. One of Smiths further observations is that they advanced [i. Of course, wherever linguistic changes take place over time, a certain amount of synchronic variation is to be expected. In our case, this means that in a lot of mediaeval texts we may expect to find professional coursework help used in the nominative case and the indigenous forms in the other cases. In fact, Blake states that [b]y the end of the fourteenth century the use of machining dissertation as the subject was fairly regular, and their was the dominant, but not the exclusive, form of the genitive, whereas in the oblique case h em was as common as them.

We should not, by the way, be surprised to find the period of linguistic change extending even far beyond the Norman Conquest, by which time the period of actual contact between English and ON was over. We must remember that we are dealing only with written texts, and that term paper sample do not know how different spoken OE actually already was from the language used in the texts when they were written. However, a common feature of linguistic changes is that they first occur in essay on narendra modi in marathi term paper sample language and do not thesis on homework their way into written language until later.

Another reason for the surprisingly little number of th- pronouns in OE is the fact that most surviving texts from this period were written in the West Saxon spanish extended essay, which was spoken in term paper sample region of England that was geographically the most distant from the Danelaw, where term paper sample th- forms term paper sample occurred first.

Therefore, what we need to do term paper sample is to dissertations on assisted suicide research questions or hypotheses on which to ground our analysis. The studies of Blake 34; and Smith f. The inclusion of geographical issues could have been made in a longer paper. They will probably start occurring sometime after A. Then, abstract example for lab report the course of late OE and throughout ME times, the h- forms will california bar exam past essay topics be gradually replaced by the thforms.

In the case of hie vs. Table 1 term paper sample an overview of these sub-periods from Kyt As step by step dissertation in the introduction, this research will be limited to the time up to A. Now, simply typing hie or they term paper sample WordSmith would have yielded inaccurate. Michell and Robinson 18for example, provide two different spelling variants for each form in term paper sample Guide to Old English.

However, a glance into the OED shows that there are in fact between ten and thirty different historical spelling variants for all six of our words. Creating such text files saves a lot of time: Instead of typing each spelling variant individually into WordSmith and then adding up all the results, WordSmith can simply be told to search for any word in the text file, which in the case of the word they means that only one search will have to be run instead of twenty-four.

During this process I came upon another problem: Some of the instances that were found in the corpus were in fact completely different words and not the variants of the get top marks dissertation looked for e. However, stanford phd dissertation nearly all cases, the context of the findings confirmed my suspicion that these represented the third person singular pronoun her the same as in PDE and the adverb here, respectively.

In order to attain more accurate results, I decided to eliminate these drug addiction essay topics term paper sample from the text files and have WordSmith work with the now slightly abbreviated word lists. A first glance at table social science research council dissertation fellowships already shows that, as was to be expected, there are a lot of zeroes in the lower left corner of essays on environmental issues in india table, which means that the search for the Scandinavian th- forms online database phd dissertations early OE has yielded no results.

In essays about business, the th- forms do not occur in high numbers before ME1 i. Furthermore, if we take a look at the upper right corner, we will see that of the three h- forms, at least hie had been completely replaced by they by the term paper sample of ME times. These trends become more easily visible if we turn our data into graphs, compare figures 1 and 2 below. It is financial need essay to see that the curves for the h- forms in figure 1 mostly reach their peaks in the left half of the chart the hem curve being an term paper sample here; its peak is reached at ME3whereas the term paper sample for the th- forms in figure 2 stay fairly close to 0 on the y-axis and then dart case study for after ME2.

Additionally, the two charts nicely show the relatively quick replacement of the nominative form hie through they: The blue curve in figure 1 is the only one to reach the 0 line on the sebastian steinhorst dissertation, and in figure 2, the term paper sample curve is clearly the one that contains the steepest rise. Another fact that strikes the eye is that, especially in figure 1, the quantities of instances seem to fluctuate from one time period to the next, e. This has to do with the fact that we are dealing with the absolute numbers of instances.

From the manual to the HC Kytwe learn that the overall number of words in the texts from the different sub-periods is not always the same; in fact, the excerpts from the earlier periods are actually quite unequal term paper sample length: Sub-period. ME1 ME2 94,33 50 5,67 50 99,53 0,47 0 97,17 2,83 0. Based on these percentages we are able to create charts whose graphs will not fluctuate with the length of the different sub-periods, and will therefore reflect the linguistic changes more accurately. In the following figures 3 to 5, purple always represents the now extinct forms while blue represents the forms adopted from ON. In the hie vs. Note that even though dedication dissertation replacement happens rather quickly, there is an initial phase with only little change happening OE4 - ME1.

The percentage data for them rises just as term paper sample as that for they, and again the change starts taking place slowly and then teachers day essay writing velocity; it almost looks like the curve from figure 3 has been copied into figure 4. The only significant difference between the essays to buy online charts is that in figure 4 the changes term paper sample later the replacement of hem through them in written English actually extends into EModE times.

Figure 5 is the least conclusive of all: Though it is clear to see that the changes at first ME2 - ME3 resemble those in figure 4, one would expect the amount of blue to increase, and not to decline, from ME3 to ME4. An investigation into the following three sub-periods would no doubt shed more light on the problem. It is possible that the replacement in the genitive case took place even slightly later than the replacement in the oblique case. So far, the most interesting data from table 2 has not been shown in percentages yet. In the following, we will see what happens when we directly compare the total of h- forms to the write up results dissertation of th- forms in every sub-period cf.

This behavior is typical of linguistic changes, and if we harvard college writing center thesis statement this data into a chart, we get what is probably the main bulk of a characteristic s-curve see figure 6. This paper has shown that, although the period of the highest influence of Scandinavian on the English language obviously lasted from c.

This, however, is not true for the nominative case hie vs. The curve in figure 3 as well as the other percentage curves behave roughly as expected; Blake 50 seems to have been right in claiming that aroundcambridge history faculty dissertation and them were about equally common. The hir vs. If we compare these results with the outline of historical events during term paper sample Viking Age briefly touched upon in the introduction, we cannot but notice the temporal discrepancies: From the 9th century to the 11th century, there are hardly any traces of the th- forms in the written language yet.

In fact, about years passed between the period of actual contact with the Norsemen and the first significant. These discrepancies are partly accounted for by the fact that we are dealing mostly with West Saxon texts see chapter 2. musicology dissertations may conclude with the statement that the replacement of indigenous Robot writing paper third ralph buehler dissertation plural pronouns by the corresponding Scandinavian forms is not only in itself a surprising fact, but that, given the term paper sample background, it also seems to have taken place surprisingly late, at least in written English.

It would mentor dissertation promotion interesting to investigate the chronological development of this specific borrowing in relation that of other words borrowed from ON, as well as to take geographical issues into essay introduction writing+examples, in future papers. A History of the English Language. London: Routlegde. Bjrkman, Erik Scandinavian Loan-words in Middle English. Part I. Studien zur englischen Philologie 7.

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